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Service alternates between opponents every two points regardless of winner of the rally until the end of the game, unless both players score ten points or the expedite system is operated, when the sequences of serving and receiving stay the same but each player serves for only one point in turn Deuce.
After each game, players switch sides of the table. In the last possible game of a match, for example the seventh game in a best of seven matches, players change ends when the first player scores five points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve.
Service is subject to change on game point of the match. Upon the possible last point of the match, the player with the lesser score serves.
If the sequence of serving and receiving is out of turn or the ends are not changed, points scored in the wrong situation are still calculated and the game shall be resumed with the order at the score that has been reached.
In addition to games between individual players, pairs may also play table tennis. Singles and doubles are both played in international competition, including the Olympic Games since and the Commonwealth Games since Brothers Dmitry Mazunov and Andrey Mazunov in Mixed doubles finals, World Table Tennis Championships.
If the expedite system is introduced while the ball is not in play, the previous receiver shall serve first. Under the expedite system, the server must win the point before the opponent makes 13 consecutive returns or the point goes to the opponent.
The system can also be initiated at any time at the request of both players or pairs. Once introduced, the expedite system remains in force until the end of the match.
Though table tennis players grip their rackets in various ways, their grips can be classified into two major families of styles, penhold and shakehand.
The penhold grip is so-named because one grips the racket similarly to the way one holds a writing instrument. The most popular style, usually referred to as the Chinese penhold style, involves curling the middle, ring, and fourth finger on the back of the blade with the three fingers always touching one another.
Japanese and Korean penholders will often use a square-headed racket for an away-from-the-table style of play. Traditionally these square-headed rackets feature a block of cork on top of the handle, as well as a thin layer of cork on the back of the racket, for increased grip and comfort.
Traditionally, penhold players use only one side of the racket to hit the ball during normal play, and the side which is in contact with the last three fingers is generally not used.
This configuration is sometimes referred to as "traditional penhold" and is more commonly found in square-headed racket styles. This stroke has greatly improved and strengthened the penhold style both physically and psychologically, as it eliminates the strategic weakness of the traditional penhold backhand.
The shakehand grip is so-named because the racket is grasped as if one is performing a handshake. In table tennis, "Western" refers to Western nations, for this is the grip that players native to Europe and the Americas have almost exclusively employed.
The Seemiller grip is named after the American table tennis champion Danny Seemiller , who used it. It is achieved by placing the thumb and index finger on either side of the bottom of the racquet head and holding the handle with the rest of the fingers.
Since only one side of the racquet is used to hit the ball, two contrasting rubber types can be applied to the blade, offering the advantage of "twiddling" the racket to fool the opponent.
Seemiller paired inverted rubber with anti-spin rubber. Many players today combine inverted and long-pipped rubber. The grip is considered exceptional for blocking, especially on the backhand side, and for forehand loops of backspin balls.
Shakehand grip Vladimir Samsonov. A direct hit on the ball propelling it forward back to the opponent. This stroke differs from speed drives in other racket sports like tennis because the racket is primarily perpendicular to the direction of the stroke and most of the energy applied to the ball results in speed rather than spin , creating a shot that does not arc much, but is fast enough that it can be difficult to return.
A speed drive is used mostly for keeping the ball in play, applying pressure on the opponent, and potentially opening up an opportunity for a more powerful attack.
Perfected during the s,  the loop is essentially the reverse of the speed drive. The racket is much more parallel to the direction of the stroke "closed" and the racket thus grazes the ball, resulting in a large amount of topspin.
The counter-hit is usually a counterattack against drives, normally high loop drives. The racket is held closed and near to the ball, which is hit with a short movement "off the bounce" immediately after hitting the table so that the ball travels faster to the other side.
A well-timed, accurate counter-drive can be as effective as a smash. When a player tries to attack a ball that has not bounced beyond the edge of the table, the player does not have the room to wind up in a backswing.
The ball may still be attacked , however, and the resulting shot is called a flip because the backswing is compressed into a quick wrist action.
A flip is not a single stroke and can resemble either a loop drive or a loop in its characteristics. What identifies the stroke is that the backswing is compressed into a short wrist flick.
The offensive trump card is the smash. A player will typically execute a smash when his or her opponent has returned a ball that bounces too high or too close to the net.
Smashing consists of using a large backswing and rapid acceleration to impart as much speed on the ball as possible. The goal of a smash is to get the ball to move so quickly that the opponent simply cannot return it.
Because the ball speed is the main aim of this shot, often the spin on the ball is something other than topspin.
An offensive table tennis player will think of a rally as a build-up to a winning smash. The push or "slice" in Asia is usually used for keeping the point alive and creating offensive opportunities.
A push resembles a tennis slice: In order to attack a push, a player must usually loop the ball back over the net. Often, the best option for beginners is to simply push the ball back again, resulting in pushing rallies.
Against good players, it may be the worst option because the opponent will counter with a loop, putting the first player in a defensive position.
Another response to pushing is flipping the ball when it is close to the net. Pushing can have advantages in some circumstances, such as when the opponent makes easy mistakes.
A chop is the defensive, backspin counterpart to the offensive loop drive. The racket face points primarily horizontally, perhaps a little bit upward, and the direction of the stroke is straight down.
A good chop will float nearly horizontally back to the table, in some cases having so much backspin that the ball actually rises. Such a chop can be extremely difficult to return due to its enormous amount of backspin.
Some defensive players can also impart no-spin or sidespin variations of the chop. The block is a simple shot, but nonetheless can be devastating against an attacking opponent.
A block is executed by simply placing the racket in front of the ball right after the ball bounces; thus, the ball rebounds back toward the opponent with nearly as much energy as it came in with.
It is very possible for an opponent to execute a perfect loop, drive, or smash, only to have the blocked shot come back at him just as fast.
Due to the power involved in offensive strokes, often an opponent simply cannot recover quickly enough, and will be unable to return the blocked shot.
Blocks almost always produce the same spin as was received, many times topspin. Depending on the spin of the ball, the block may be returned to an unexpected side of the table.
This may come to your advantage, as the opponent may not expect this. A lob is inherently a creative shot, and can have nearly any kind of spin.
Top-quality players use this to their advantage in order to control the spin of the ball. For instance, though the opponent may smash the ball hard and fast, a good defensive lob could be more difficult to return due to the unpredictability and heavy amounts of the spin on the ball.
However, at the professional level, lobbers will lose the point most of the time, so the lob is not used unless it is really necessary. Adding spin onto the ball causes major changes in table tennis gameplay.
Although nearly every stroke or serve creates some kind of spin, understanding the individual types of spin allows players to defend against and use different spins effectively.
Backspin is where the bottom half of the ball is rotating away from the player, and is imparted by striking the base of the ball with a downward movement.
However, backspin also makes it harder for the opponent to return the ball with great speed because of the required angular precision of the return.
Alterations are frequently made to regulations regarding equipment in an effort to maintain a balance between defensive and offensive spin choices.
The topspin stroke has a smaller influence on the first part of the ball-curve. Like the backspin stroke, however, the axis of spin remains roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball thus allowing for the Magnus effect to dictate the subsequent curvature.
After the apex of the curve, the ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing. On the bounce, the topspin will accelerate the ball, much in the same way that a wheel which is already spinning would accelerate upon making contact with the ground.
When the opponent attempts to return the ball, the topspin causes the ball to jump upwards and the opponent is forced to compensate for the topspin by adjusting the angle of his or her racket.
This is known as "closing the racket". The speed limitation of the topspin stroke is minor compared to the backspin stroke. This stroke is the predominant technique used in professional competition because it gives the opponent less time to respond.
In table tennis topspin is regarded as an offensive technique due to increased ball speed, lower bio-mechanical efficiency and the pressure that it puts on the opponent by reducing reaction time.
It is possible to play defensive topspin-lobs from far behind the table, but only highly skilled players use this stroke with any tactical efficiency.
Topspin is the least common type of spin to be found in service at the professional level, simply because it is much easier to attack a top-spin ball that is not moving at high speed.
This type of spin is predominantly employed during service, wherein the contact angle of the racket can be more easily varied. Unlike the two aforementioned techniques, sidespin causes the ball to spin on an axis which is vertical, rather than horizontal.
The axis of rotation is still roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball. In this circumstance, the Magnus effect will still dictate the curvature of the ball to some degree.
Another difference is that unlike backspin and topspin, sidespin will have relatively very little effect on the bounce of the ball, much in the same way that a spinning top would not travel left or right if its axis of rotation were exactly vertical.
This makes sidespin a useful weapon in service, because it is less easily recognized when bouncing, and the ball "loses" less spin on the bounce.
Sidespin can also be employed in offensive rally strokes, often from a greater distance, as an adjunct to topspin or backspin.
This stroke is sometimes referred to as a "hook". The hook can even be used in some extreme cases to circumvent the net when away from the table.
Players employ this type of spin almost exclusively when serving, but at the professional level, it is also used from time to time in the lob.
In theory this type of spin produces the most obnoxious effects, but it is less strategically practical than sidespin or backspin, because of the limitations that it imposes upon the opponent during their return.
Aside from the initial direction change when bouncing, unless it goes out of reach, the opponent can counter with either topspin or backspin.
A backspin stroke is similar in the fact that the corkspin stroke has a lower maximum velocity, simply due to the contact angle of the racket when producing the stroke.
To impart a spin on the ball which is parallel to its trajectory, the racket must be swung more or less perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball, greatly limiting the forward momentum that the racket transfers to the ball.
Corkspin is almost always mixed with another variety of spin, since alone, it is not only less effective but also harder to produce.
Competitive table tennis is popular in East Asia and Europe , and has been [ vague ] gaining attention in the United States.
Continental competitions include the following:. There are also professional competitions at the clubs level; the respective leagues of Austria , Belgium , China specifically, the China Table Tennis Super League , France , Germany and Russia are examples of the highest level.
There are also some important international club teams competitions such as the European Champions League and its former competitor, [ vague ] the European Club Cup , where the top club teams from European countries compete.
The following table presents an exhaustive list of all players to have completed a grand slam. Persson is one of the three table tennis players to have competed at seven Olympic Games.
Ma Lin China won both the Olympic gold and the World Cup, but lost three times, in , , and in the finals of the World Championships.
Founded in , the International Table Tennis Federation ITTF is the worldwide governing body for table tennis, which maintains an international ranking system in addition to organizing events like the World Table Tennis Championships.
On many continents, there is a governing body responsible for table tennis on that continent. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.
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